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produced by the body, and their normal function.






Protein Hormone

regulates levels of cortisol, which released from the adrenal gland

produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the production and release of cortisol from the cortex (outer part) of the adrenal gland


Steroid Hormone

regulation of the salt and water balance of the body

produced in the cortex (outer part) of the adrenal gland



increases blood pressure and exerts an antidiuretic effect

produced in the hypothalamus and is transported to the pituitary gland for release



regulates the levels of calcium (and phosphate) in the blood – by opposing the action of parathyroid hormone

produced and released by the C-cells of the thyroid gland


Adrenaline (epinephrine)

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)




work together to prepare the body for ‘fight or flight’ response in times of stress, i.e. for vigorous and/or sudden action


produced in the medulla (central part) of the adrenal glands and in some neurons of the central nervous system


Peptide hormone

slows down the emptying of food from the stomach and stimulates the production of bile in the liver as well as its release from the gall bladder.

produced by I-cells in the lining of the duodenum and is also released by some neurons in the brain.


Steroid Hormone

Stress response, metabolism, blood sugar control & immune response

produced in the cortex (outer part) of the adrenal gland

FSH and LH

Peptide hormone

FSH & LH regulate the functions of both the ovaries and testes


both are released by the pituitary gland into the bloodstream


Peptide hormone

stimulates the stomach to release gastric acid

produced by the pancreas, ’G’ cells in the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine (duodenum).


Peptide hormone

Breaks down glycogen to glucose – helps to control blood sugar (glucose) levels.

Pancreas (alpha cells within the islets of Langerhans)

Glucagon-like peptide 1

Peptide hormone

encourages the release of insulin and holds back glucagon release

It can also reduce appetite and slow stomach emptying

small intestine, pancreas and the central nervous system

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide

Peptide hormone

enhances the release of insulin following the intake of food

upper section of the small intestine from a specific type of cell known as the K cell

Growth Hormone

Peptide hormone

Stimulates growth – helps to maintain normal body structure and metabolism

anterior pituitary gland



has a number of functions within the body including acute allergic responses, secretion of gastric acid, smooth muscle contraction, acts as a neurotransmitter within the central nervous system and in regulating immune responses

is present in peripheral nerves and endocrine cells in addition to mast cells


Protein Hormone

control of blood sugar (glucose) levels

Pancreas (beta cells within the islets of Langerhans)



is associated with control of the sleep–wake cycle – circadian rhythm, and also seasonal (or circannual) rhythm

produced and released from the pineal gland occurs with a clear daily (circadian) rhythm





Steroid Hormone


acts to mature and maintain the female reproductive system

is in involved in pregnancy and childbirth

it is thought that oestrone may act as a reservoir that can be converted into oestradiol as needed



In premenopausal women, oestradiol is mostly made by the ovaries – also by the placenta in pregnant women.

is made by the placenta

is primarily produced by the ovaries as well as by adipose tissue and the adrenal glands


Peptide hormone

In women – stimulates contraction of the womb (uterus) during childbirth and lactation.

In men – it plays a role in sperm transport and production of testosterone by the testes.

It is also thought to play a role in certain aspects of human behaviour – including social bonding.

produced in the hypothalamus and is secreted into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland.

PP (Pancreatic polypeptide)


inhibits pancreatic secretion, gall bladder activity and small bowel contraction – though its full function, in humans(!), is incompletely understood.

Pancreas (PP cells)


Steroid Hormone

progesterone prepares the body for pregnancy in the event that the released egg is fertilised. If it isn’t, the production of progesterone falls and a new menstrual cycle begins

mainly secreted by the corpus luteum in the ovary during the second half of the menstrual cycle. progesterone is also produced in smaller quantities by the ovaries themselves, the adrenal glands and, during pregnancy, the placenta from about week 8-12.



is usually associated with lactation, but has numerous other functions within the body including reproduction, metabolism, regulation of the immune system & fluid balance and behaviour.

produced in the anterior pituitary gland and elsewhere including the uterus, immune cells, brain, breasts, prostate, skin and adipose tissue


Eicosanoids (fatty-acid derivative)

control processes such as inflammation, blood flow, the formation of blood clots and the induction of labour.

prostaglandins are produced at the site where they are needed so can be made by nearly all cells

PTH (para-thyroid hormone)

Peptide hormone

regulates calcium levels in the blood – through its actions on the kidneys, bones and intestine

parathyroid glands

PTHrP (Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide)

Peptide hormone

as PTH – also smooth muscle relaxation and cell development

parathyroid glands



affects many aspects of how the gut functions including how fast food moves through your system (motility), how much fluid, such as mucus, is secreted in your intestines and how sensitive your intestines are to sensations like pain and fullness from eating. It is derived from tryptophan – an essential amino-acid that comes from dietary intake.

approx 90% of serotonin is located in the GI tract, where it regulates intestinal function, 8% is found in platelets and 1-2% in the brain/CNS (central nervous system). Serotonin is also a precursor to melatonin


Peptide hormone

regulates numerous bodily functions : it inhibits the secretion of other hormones, the activity of the gastrointestinal tract and the rapid reproduction of normal and tumour cells.

produced by many tissues in the body, principally in the nervous and digestive systems


Steroid Hormone

is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength

produced by the testes and ovaries, with small quantities being produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Peptide hormone

controls production of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, by the thyroid gland

is produced and released into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland



plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development and maintenance of bones

it is secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland



alongside thyroxine, triiodothyronine plays vital roles in digestion. heart and muscle function, brain development and bone maintenance.

Approximately 20% of triiodothyronine is secreted into the bloodstream directly by the thyroid gland. The remaining 80% is produced from conversion of thyroxine by organs such as the liver and kidneys.

VIP (Vaso-active Intestinal Peptide)


is a potent vasodilator, regulates smooth muscle activity, epithelial cell secretion, and blood flow in the gastrointestinal tract. It also stimulates the secretion of electrolytes and water by the intestinal mucosa.

secreted by cells throughout the intestinal tract and pancreatic islet cells.

Vitamin D – calcitriol

Steroid Hormone

Vitamin D is actually a hormone rather than a vitamin; it is required to absorb calcium from the gut into the bloodstream, it is important for normal growth and development of bones and teeth, and may also play a role in the body’s immune system and heart health too

Vitamin D is mostly produced in the skin in response to sunlight and is also absorbed from food eaten (about 10% of vitamin D is absorbed this way) as part of a healthy balanced diet. The liver and kidneys convert vitamin D, into the active hormone, which is called calcitriol.